Manana Lortkipanidze, Ilia State University, Georgia
This paper presents the results of using entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of house fly - Musca domestica L. (Insecta: Diptera: Muscidae) in field conditions. The house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, is a well-known cosmopolitan pest of both farm and home. This species is always found in association with humans or the activities of humans. The biological agents - entomopathogenic nematodes of the Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae families are pathogenic for a range of pests. These nematodes are symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus. rnFor the experiment we used pupae and larvae of fly (50-50) colonized 2 kg cattle dung.rnFor infestation of insects the nematode suspension with certain concentration - 10 000 nem/ml was prepared. Three test samples were taken, to each dung sample was added - 70, 50, 25 ml from the mentioned suspension. Appropriately, in test sample I the number of nematodes was 350 per 1 g dung, in test sample II – 250 and in test sample III – 125. As the result showed in sample I pupae and larvae mortality achieved 88.2-78%, in sample II – mortality was 43.5-40% and in test sample III – was approximately - 32.3-28.3%. The insects died mostly in the pupa stage. The analysis of the experiments conducted by us evidence that the most efficient dose of the nematode suspension applied against pupae and larvae of fly colonized on cattle dung is 350 nem/g Both spacies of entomopathogenic namatodes produced mortality of experimental insects, although the S. feltiae was more significant than H. bacteriophira.rn
Dr. Jesca Nakayima is a PhD graduate from Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (2014). She specialized in Molecular epidemiology; Dissertation: Molecular epidemiological study of protozoan and other zoonotic diseases from two countries in Africa. Jesca holds a Master of Wildlife Health & Management (MWHM) from Makerere University and a Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine (BVM) from Makerere University, in 2006 and 2002 respectively. She joined National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO)/National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI) in June 2006, where she has worked to-date. Jesca has worked under the Biotechnology section then later Livestock health Programme. She has participated in the surveillance and control of Trypanosomiasis. But also worked on the Molecular epidemiology of Zoonoses, Protozoan parasites, Helminths, Wildlife diseases, Tick-borne diseases, Viruses, among others.
Faecal samples were collected from Karamoja sub-region in two districts namely:\r\nMoroto and Amudat.\r\nThe camels and donkeys were classified as: infant, juvenile, sub-adult and adult.\r\nMale and female animals were sampled.\r\nSedimentation and floatation techniques were the utilized parasitological techniques to identify the eggs in faeces and examined microscopically (10× and 40×) for presence of parasite ova based on their morphology.\r\nQuantitative faecal examination was performed by using McMaster technique to\r\ndetermine the number of egg per gram of faeces (EPG).\r\nFaecal culture using Baermann technique to determine lung worm larvae,\r\nDictyocaulus arnifieldi and D. cameli was also undertaken.\r\nLevel of infection was extrapolated from infection severity index where animals are\r\nsaid to have mild, moderate and severe nematode infestation if their faecal egg\r\ncounts are less than 500, 500-1000 and more than 1000, respectively.