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4th International Conference on Parasitology, will be organized around the theme “Addressing New Challenges and Emerging Issues in Parasitology ”

Parasitology 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Parasitology 2017

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This session tracks covers Parasitism and Symbiosis. The Microenvironment and the Phases of Parasitism. Immunity to Parasites. Introduction to the Parasitic Protozoa. Sarcodina and Opalinata: The Amoebae and Opalinids. Apicomplexa, Microspora, Ascetospora, and Myxozoa. Ciliophora: The Ciliates. Introduction to the Symbiotic Flatworms. Monogenea: The Monogenetic Trematodes. Digenea: The Digenetic Trematodes. Cestoidea: The Taperworms. Cestrodaria: The Unsegmented Tapeworms. Eucestoda: The True Tapeworms. Acanthocephala: The Spiny-Headed Worms. Nemata: The Roundworms Adenophorean Nematodes.

Secernentean Nematodes Physiology and Biochemistry of Nematodes. Introduction to the Parasitic Arthropods. The Mites. Introduction to the Parasitic Insects. Diptera: The Flies, Gnats, and Mosquitoes. Hemiptera: The True Bugs. Hymenoptera: The Wasps. Coleoptera: The Beetles. Strepsiptera: The Twisted-Wing Insects. Other Zooparasites.

  • Track 1-1General life cycle of parasites
  • Track 1-2Classification of Parasites
  • Track 1-3Association between parasite and host
  • Track 1-4Effect of parasites on the host
  • Track 1-5Sources of exposure to Parasitic Infections

Animals have constant interaction with other organisms. The interactions can be classified into two types:

1. Intra-specific interactions

2. Inter-specific interactions

Intra-specific interactions occur between organisms of same species.

They range between relatively loose associations between members of flock of speed, to highly complex interactions seen in colonial invertebrates. E.g.: Bryozoans.

Inter-specific interactions occur between different species of organisms. The degree of association can be varying between being extremely loose to highly complex.

  • Track 2-1Symbiosis
  • Track 2-2Commensalism
  • Track 2-3 Phoresis
  • Track 2-4Mutualism
  • Track 2-5 Parasitism
  • Track 2-6Parasitoids

Parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where as one species the parasite benefits at the expense of other the host. Traditionally parasite referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye or macro parasites such as helminths.

Parasites can be micro parasites, which are typically smaller such as protozoa viruses, and bacteria.

Parasites typically do not kill their host but generally much smaller than their host and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Parasitism differs from the parasitoid relationship in that parasitoids generally kill their hosts.

Parasites have a variety of methods to infect hosts. Parasites infect hosts that exist within their same geographical area. This phenomenon supports the “Red Queen hypothesis”.

  • Track 3-1Protozoa and helminths
  • Track 3-2Classes parasites hosts

Medical parasitology traditionally has included the study of three major groups of animals: parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminths (worms), and those arthropods that directly cause disease or act as vectors of various pathogens. A parasite is a pathogen that simultaneously injures and derives sustenance from its host. Some organisms called parasites are actually commensals, in that they neither benefit nor harm their host (for example, Entamoeba coli). Although parasitology had its origins in the zoologic sciences, it is today an interdisciplinary field, greatly influenced by microbiology, immunology, biochemistry, and other life sciences.

  • Track 4-1Amoebiasis
  • Track 4-2Pathogenic Flagellates
  • Track 4-3Medically important ciliates
  • Track 4-4Coccidia (Sporozoa)
  • Track 4-5Medically important treatodes (Flukes)
  • Track 4-6Nematodes (Round Worms)
  • Track 4-7Cestodes (Tapeworms)

This session covers protozoa which infect humans. The basic biology of these protozoa, as well as the clinical manifestations of the diseases they cause, will be discussed. Life cycles, morphological features, host-parasite interactions, geographical distribution, reservoir hosts, methods of transmission and control, pathology, immunological aspects and diagnosis will be covered. The biological and clinical perspectives gained in this course will assist students in the recognition, evaluation and management of public health problems or clinical practice involving medically important protozoa.

  • Track 5-1Class- Rhizopoda ( Amoebae)
  • Track 5-2Class - Zoomastigophora ( Flagellates)
  • Track 5-3Class -Telosporidia
  • Track 5-4Class -Ciliatea ( Ciliates)

Medical helminthology is the field of medicine that pertains to helminths (worms) capable of disease in people.

The public health impact of medical helminths is appreciable. Two billion people are infected by soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura and by schistosomes. Early childhood infections by soil-transmitted helminths delays physical and cognitive development. Other widespread helminthic infections include onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), and food-borne trematode and tapeworm infections. All of these infections cause chronic morbidity and debilitation.

  • Track 6-1Platyhelminths
  • Track 6-2Class cestoda (tapeworm)
  • Track 6-3Class trematodes(flukes)
  • Track 6-4Intestinal nematodes
  • Track 6-5Nemathelminths

Parasites require different cultivation Practice such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically parasites. eg:Entamoeba  histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae.

The parasitic infections, culture are not a routine identification technique. Useful for clinching the diagnosis in some protozoan parasitic infections, e.g. in case of Central Nervous System infections by frees living amoebae.

Parasite cultivation can be used to study the biochemistry, physiology, and metabolism of the parasites. Determine their nutritional requirements, and for understanding their ultra-structural organization, life-cycle and host-parasite relationship, cell-mediated protective systems against the parasites.

Cultivating parasites helps in differentiating clinical isolates. The techniques are iso-enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody techniques, and DNA probe techniques can be easily applied on cultures.

  • Track 7-1Process of Faeces for parasites
  • Track 7-2Quantification techniques for Faecal Parasites
  • Track 7-3Culture techniques for parasites
  • Track 7-4Process of blood and other body fluids
  • Track 7-5Pseudo parasites and Artifacts

Arthropods form a huge assemblage of small fluid-filled cavity within the body of most multicellular animals with jointed limbs. They exhibit segmentation of their bodies which is often masked in adults because of their 10-25 body segments which are combined into 2-3 functional groups called tagmata. They exhibit varying degrees of cephalization, sensory receptors and feeding structures in the head region.

 Arthropods possess a rigid cuticle shape exoskeleton consisting mainly of proteins and chitin. The exoskeleton is usually hard and insoluble which is indigestible and impregnated with calcium salts. The exoskeleton provides physical and physiological protection .Skeletal plates are joined by flexible articular membranes and the joints can be called as hinges or pivots made from chondyles and sockets.

  • Track 8-1Phylum Chelicerata
  • Track 8-2Phylum Crustacea
  • Track 8-3Sub-phylum Hexapoda

Structural parasitology is the study of structures of parasitic proteins.  Among protozoan parasites, the phylum of Apicomplexa includes organisms responsible for malaria, toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis. Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites, belonging to the phylum of Kinetoplastida, cause Chagas disease, African Sleeping Disease and visceral leishmaniasis.  For some of these diseases, such as malaria, existing drugs face the threat of resistance.  For others, such as cryptosporidiosis, there is no effective chemotherapy.

  • Track 9-1Structural Genomnics of Pathogenic Protozoa
  • Track 9-2Structure & Functionality of Parasites Proteins
  • Track 9-3Structural Genomics Consortium

This session track covers the study of animal parasites, especially relationships between parasites and animal hosts. Parasites of domestic animals, (livestock and pet animals), as well as wildlife animals are considered. Veterinary parasitologists study the genesis and development of parasitoses in animal hosts, as well as the taxonomy and systematics of parasites, including the morphology, life cycles, and living needs of parasites in the environment and in animal hosts. Using a variety of research methods, they diagnose, treat, and prevent animal parasitoses. Data obtained from parasitological research in animals helps in veterinary practice and improves animal breeding. The major goal of veterinary parasitology is to protect animals and improve their health, but because a number of animal parasites are transmitted to humans, veterinary parasitology is also important for public health.

  • Track 10-1Histomonas Meleagridis: A New Focus on a Re-emerging Protozoan Parasite
  • Track 10-2Parasite Control and Livestock Production
  • Track 10-3Common Avian Parasites and Emerging Diseases
  • Track 10-4Primary Immune Response and Parasite Dissemination
  • Track 10-5Epidemiologic Aspects of Bovine Neosporosis
  • Track 10-6The Relevance of Giardia Infections in Veterinary Medicine
  • Track 10-7Animal Models Suitable to Study Complex Polygenic Processes

The parasitic Disease can also be known as parasitosis, infectious disease can be caused or transmitted by a parasite. Many parasites do not cause diseases. Parasitic diseases can affect practically all living organisms, including plants and mammals. The parasites like Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp. can cause disease directly, but other organisms can cause disease by the toxins that they produce.

Common ways for the transmission of Parasites

Food or Water Contamination - roundworm, amoebae, giardia, cryptosporidium

Vectors

mosquito - canine heartworm, filaria, malaria

flea - canine tapeworm

housefly - amoebic cysts

sand fly - leishmaniasis

Sexual Contact - trichomonas, giardia, amoebae

Inhalation of Contaminated Dust or Air - pinworm, Toxoplasma gondii

Skin Penetration - hookworms, schistosomes, strongyloides

 

 

  • Track 11-1Transmission through Contamination
  • Track 11-2Transmission associated with reproduction
  • Track 11-3Auto-infection
  • Track 11-4Nosocomial transmission
  • Track 11-5Transmission by active parasite
  • Track 11-6Hosts and Vectors Relation
  • Track 11-7Host Factors
  • Track 11-8Environmental Factors

The main topics covered are the physiology, immunology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of eukaryotic parasites, and the interaction between the parasite and its host, including chemotherapy against parasites.

The diseases caused by these parasites constitute major human health problems throughout the world. The incidence of many parasitic diseases (eg. schistosomiasis, malaria) have increased rather than decreased in recent years. Other parasitic illnesses have increased in importance as a result of the AIDS epidemic (eg., cryptosporidiosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and strongyloidiasis).Like other pathogens, parasites must survive in the face of a highly potent immune system. Over millions of years of evolution, they succeed in this through a great diversity of strategies for avoiding immune detection, suppressing cellular immunity and deflecting immune attack mechanisms.

Similarly hosts have evolved resistance in various ways to overcome their entry and existence. Host- parasite interactions provide fascinating examples of evolutionary 'arms-races' in which the immune system plays a key role.The main topics covered are the physiology, immunology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of eukaryotic parasites, and the interaction between the parasite and its host, including chemotherapy against parasites.

The diseases caused by these parasites constitute major human health problems throughout the world. The incidence of many parasitic diseases (eg. schistosomiasis, malaria) have increased rather than decreased in recent years. Other parasitic illnesses have increased in importance as a result of the AIDS epidemic (eg., cryptosporidiosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and strongyloidiasis).Like other pathogens, parasites must survive in the face of a highly potent immune system. Over millions of years of evolution, they succeed in this through a great diversity of strategies for avoiding immune detection, suppressing cellular immunity and deflecting immune attack mechanisms.

Similarly hosts have evolved resistance in various ways to overcome their entry and existence. Host- parasite interactions provide fascinating examples of evolutionary 'arms-races' in which the immune system plays a key role.

  • Track 12-1Molecular Biology of Parasites
  • Track 12-2Functional genomics of parasites and vectors
  • Track 12-3Molecular & Cellular Biology of Tropical Diseases
  • Track 12-4Immunology of Tropical Diseases
  • Track 12-5Statistical Methods for Epidemiological and Clinical Research
  • Track 12-6Chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites

The effects of parasitic worms  on the immune system is a recently emerging topic of study among immunologists and other biologists. Experiments involved a wide range of parasites, diseases and hosts. The effects on humans have been of special interest for the researchers. The tendency of many parasitic worms to pacify the host's immune response allows them to mollify some diseases while some worsening others.

Extensive research shows that parasitic worms have the ability to deactivate certain immune system cells, leading to a gentler immune response. Anthelmintics are drugs that are used to treat infections with parasitic worms.

 

 

  • Track 13-1Invertebrate immunity
  • Track 13-2Innate immunity to Parasite infections
  • Track 13-3Adaptive immunity
  • Track 13-4Immunity to Malaria
  • Track 13-5Schistosoma mansoni and Hepatitis C virus interactions
  • Track 13-6HIV-AIDS and Parasitic diseases
  • Track 13-7Parasitic infections in compromised host
  • Track 13-8 Quality Assurance and laboratory safety
  • Track 13-9Eosinophilia in parasitic infection

This scientific sessions covers many infections and infestations that are classified as "tropical diseases" used to be endemic in countries located in the tropics. This includes widespread epidemics such as malaria, Ebola and hookworm infections as well as exceedingly rare diseases like lagochilascaris minor. Many of these diseases have been controlled or even eliminated from developed countries, as a result of improvements in housing, diet, sanitation, and personal hygiene.

  • Track 14-1Emerging and re-emerging Pathogens
  • Track 14-2Clinical & Preventive Tropical Medicine
  • Track 14-3New tools for vector control
  • Track 14-4Control of vector-borne diseases

Parasites are single cell small sized micro-organisms that live on other living things including animals and humans to get food and survive. Sometimes humans can suffer severe life threatening infections when they have a parasitic attack. Parasitic diseases caused mainly by Protozoa and Helminths.

Parasites are of two types ectoparasites and endoparasites. If any parasite lives on the surface of a host such as human it is called as ectoparasite and parasite lives inside the living thing it is called as endoparasite. Mainly parasitic diseases are occurred by endoparasites.

The common parasitic diseases are Dysentery, Pneomonia, Filariasis, Scabies, and Pediculosis etc.

 

  • Track 15-1Mechanisms
  • Track 15-2Diseases
  • Track 15-3Damage of specific organs
  • Track 15-4Pathogenesis and their co-infections

Then laboratory diagnosis involves conventional methods such as optical microscopy used for the morphological identification. Molecular biology techniques are used to diagnose parasite structures , identification and characterization of parasites. The objective of the present study was to review the main current and new diagnostic techniques for Identification of parasite infections.

E.g: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), Luminex xMAP, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), Molecular assays have comprehensively assisted in the diagnosis treatment and epidemiological studies of parasitic diseases.

 

  • Track 16-1Ideal diagnostic test
  • Track 16-2Isolation of parasites
  • Track 16-3Morphological identification
  • Track 16-4Biochemical techniques
  • Track 16-5Immunological techniques
  • Track 16-6Molecular techniques
  • Track 16-7Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)
  • Track 16-8MALDI-TOF MS

Parasites are the potential key for treating autoimmune diseases. There is a new weapon in the fight for against autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease .The common trait is that an immune system that attacks its own organs and tissues.

 Helminthic therapy is an experimental type of immuno therapy and it is the treatment of autoimmune diseases and immune disorders .

 Helminths are parasitic worms such as hookworms, whipworms, and threadworms that live within a host organism on which they rely for the nutrients. The WHO estimated that a staggering 2 billion people suffering from worm infections.

 

  • Track 17-1Maintenance of healthy immunity system
  • Track 17-2For the treat of medical conditions
  • Track 17-3Parasite as Novel Pharmaceutically-active compounds
  • Track 17-4Biological control agents
  • Track 17-5Parasite act as forensic indicators

Medical entomology, or public health entomology, and also veterinary entomology is focused upon insects and arthropods that impact human health. Veterinary entomology is included in this category, because many animal diseases can "jump species" and become a human health threat, for example, bovine encephalitis.

Medical entomology also includes scientific research on the behavior, ecology, and epidemiology of arthropod disease vectors, and involves a tremendous outreach to the public, including local and state officials and other stake holders in the interest of public safety, finally in current situation related to one health approach mostly health policy makers recommends to widely applicability of medical entomology for disease control efficient and best fit on achieving development goal and to tackle the newly budding zoonotic diseases.

  • Track 18-1Biology of Arthopods
  • Track 18-2Importance of Arthropods in Parasitology
  • Track 18-3Medical conditions related to arthropods
  • Track 18-4Vector control measures

Parasitic nutrition is a mode of heterotrophic nutrition where an organism lives on the body surface or inside the body of another type of organism .The parasite obtains nutrition directly from the body of the host. The parasites derive their nourishment from their host. This symbiotic interaction is often described as harmful to the host. Parasites are dependent on their host for survival; host provides nutrition and protection for the parasite. As a result of this dependence, parasites have considerable modifications to optimise parasitic nutrition and therefore their survival.

Parasites require nutrients to carry out essential functions including reproduction and their growth. The nutrients required from the host are, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Carbohydrates are utilised to generate energy, amino acids and fatty acids are involved in the synthesis of macromolecules and the production of eggs. Most parasites are heterotrophs, so they are unable to synthesise their own 'food'.

 

  • Track 19-1Parasitic advantage
  • Track 19-2Uptake of nutrients
  • Track 19-3Physiology and metabolic pathways
  • Track 19-4Factors affecting development
  • Track 19-5Anti-parasitic chemotherapy

Recombinant DNA technology has major impact on our understanding of many organisms and biological processes over the past three decades. The polymerase chain reaction has greatly enhanced the power of recombinant DNA by provided allowance for the detection of a little as one molecule. Cloned complementary DNA copies of mRNAs are easy to expression of individual gene products in other organisms.

The isolation of malaria antigen by expression screening cDNA, have been widely used in the fields of parasitology.

 

  • Track 20-1Molecular genetics
  • Track 20-2 Hemoglobinopathies
  • Track 20-3Vaccine preparation
  • Track 20-4Diagnosis prevention and treatment of human disease

The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the cause and history of the infections was recognized. Some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control. Helminth infections can be effectively controlled.

They are different approaches to control from diagnosis to treatment of parasitic diseases. To control the transmission by preventative chemotherapy and vector control. Then fact that the spread of many parasitic diseases is by contaminated supplies resulting from inadequate waste disposal.

  • Track 21-1Treatment and control
  • Track 21-2Treatment of Parasitic diseases
  • Track 21-3Vaccines for Parasitic diseases

Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans. Many of these vectors are bloodsucking insects, which ingest disease-producing microorganisms during a blood meal from an infected host (human or animal) and later inject it into a new host during their subsequent blood meal.Mosquitoes are the best known disease vector. Others include ticks, flies, sandflies, fleas, triatomine bugs and some freshwater aquatic snails.

Vector-borne diseases are illnesses caused by pathogens and parasites in human populations. Every year there are more than 1 billion cases and over 1 million deaths from vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, schistosomiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and onchocerciasis, globally.Vector-borne diseases account for over 17% of all infectious diseases. Distribution of these diseases is determined by a complex dynamic of environmental and social factors.

  • Track 22-1Chagas disease
  • Track 22-2Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever
  • Track 22-3Chikungunya
  • Track 22-4Human African trypanosomiasis
  • Track 22-5Leishmaniasis
  • Track 22-6Lymphatic Filariasis
  • Track 22-7Malaria
  • Track 22-8Schistosomiasis
  • Track 22-9Yellow fever

This session covers the molecular biology and biochemistry of parasitic protozoa and helminths and their interactions with both the definitive and intermediate host. The main subject areas covered are:

•The structure, biosynthesis, degradation, properties and function of DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and small molecular-weight substances

• Intermediary metabolism and bioenergetics

• Drug target characterization and the mode of action of antiparasitic drugs

• Molecular and biochemical aspects of membrane structure and function

• Host-parasite relationships that focus on the parasite, particularly as related to specific parasite molecules.

• Analysis of genes and genome structure, function and expression

• Analysis of variation in parasite populations relevant to genetic exchange.

  • Track 23-1Biochemistry of parasitic protozoa
  • Track 23-2Molecular Biology of Parasites
  • Track 23-3Epidemiology of Parasites at the molecular level

Tickborne diseases are becoming a serious problem in this country as people increasingly build homes in formerly uninhabited wilderness areas where ticks and their animal hosts live. Tickborne diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Most people become infected through tick bites during the spring and summer months.

Tickborne diseases can be found throughout the United States. For example, Lyme disease, first discovered in Connecticut in the early 1970s, has since spread to every state except Hawaii.

Ticks transmit ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis, both bacterial diseases. Babesiosis is caused by parasites carried by deer ticks. These diseases are found in several states.Tularemia, a less common tickborne bacterial disease, can be transmitted by ticks as well as other vectors (carriers) such as the deerfly. Public health experts are concerned that the bacterium that causes tularemia (Francisella tularensis) could be used as a weapon of bioterrorism.

  • Track 24-1Taxonomy, Systematics, and Evolution
  • Track 24-2Tick Paralysis: A Noninfectious Tickborne Disease
  • Track 24-3Epidemiology of Tickborne Diseases
  • Track 24-4Collection, Identification, and Preservation of Ticks
  • Track 24-5Tickborne Bacterial Diseases in Humans
  • Track 24-6Tickborne Relapsing Fever

Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. Fish defences against disease are specific and non-specific. Non-specific defences include skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps microorganisms and inhibits their growth. If pathogens breach these defences, fish can develop inflammatory responses that increase the flow of blood to infected areas and deliver white blood cells that attempt to destroy the pathogens.

Specific defences are specialised responses to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, that is adaptative immune responses. In recent years, vaccines have become widely used in aquaculture and ornamental fish, for example vaccines for furunculosis in farmed salmon and koi herpes virus in koi.

  • Track 25-1Seafood Parasites
  • Track 25-2Protozoal Parasites
  • Track 25-3Myxozoan Parasites
  • Track 25-4Mongenetic Trematodes
  • Track 25-5Digenetic Trematodes
  • Track 25-6Leeches and Copepods

Parasitic diseases afflict large numbers of humans, Who Estimated that no global scale, infectious and parasitic diseases were responsible for deaths. Malaria causing most deaths 1.5%. Approximately 225 million clinical cases of malaria and these resulted about 781,000 deaths. Most of these cases occurred in children younger than five years in Africa. In 2000, there were estimated to be 233 million clinical cases that resulted in approximately 985,000 deaths.

  • Track 26-1Consequences of parasite diseases for humans
  • Track 26-2Consequences of parasite diseases for domestic animals
  • Track 26-3Estimation for the cost of morbidity due to disease
  • Track 26-4Economic consequences of parasitic diseases for wildlife

Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response.Recent developments in new diagnostic tools, however, have opened new avenues for a vast improvement in parasite detection. Firstly, a number of newer serology-based assays that are highly specific and sensitive have emerged, such as the Falcon assay screening test ELISA (FAST-ELISA) , Dot-ELISA , rapid antigen detection system (RDTS) , and luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) .

Secondly, molecular-based approaches such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) , real-time polymerase chain reaction , and Luminex  have shown a high potential for use in parasite diagnosis with increased specificity and sensitivity. Thirdly, proteomic technology has also been introduced for the discovery of biomarkers using tissues or biological fluids from the infected host.

  • Track 27-1Scaling Up Integrated Control
  • Track 27-2Vaccine Development
  • Track 27-3Stratification of Parasitic Diseases in Relation to Elimination and Control
  • Track 27-4Environmental Approaches

Public health operate at the boundary between science and policy. This is particularly true in the domain of environmental health. The human health risks by environmental exposures are complex poorly understood. Societies around the world need leaders who are fluent in both environmental health sciences and in policy analysis.

The Environmental Health Policy Certificate aims to produce such leaders. This combination provides skills needed in environmental health science and policy at the local, national, and global levels.

  • Track 28-1Health Financing and Sector-Wide Approaches
  • Track 28-2Public–Private Partnerships
  • Track 28-3The Global Burden of Parasitic Diseases
  • Track 28-4‘‘Neglected’’ Tropical Disease Initiatives and the Integration of Control