Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd World Conference on Parasitology & Pathogenesis Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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Day 1 :

World Parasitology 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram photo
Biography:

Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram DVM, PhD, Professor & Head at University of Illinois, College of Medicine, USA. He mainly works on development of a vaccine against
lymphatic filariasis a tropical parasitic infection that causes a gruesome and disfiguring condition in the human. Second major research focus is on gene mining and functional
proteomics of schistosome and lymphatic filarial parasites. Several vaccine candidates and drug targets of the lymphatic filarial and schistosome organisms were
identified in his laboratory using a phage-display cDNA expression library screening approach.

Abstract:

Helminth infections are highly prevalent in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Currently over 2.0 billion people are infected with helminth parasites. With few exceptions, these parasites do not replicate in the human. Similarly, helminth infections rarely cause mortality, but are notorious for causing high morbidity leading to significant disability adjusted life years (DALY) lost. To survive in the host, the parasites have developed multitude of ways to evade the human immune responses. Significant amount of studies were focused on identifying the host immunomodulatory molecules and their mechanism of immune suppression. Current control strategy of helminth infection relies heavily on broad spectrum anthelmintic treatments. Luminal parasites are easily cleared by anthelmintic treatment compared to tissue dwelling parasites. However, treatments do not prevent future infections, especially in endemic areas where the spread of infection is rapid. Prophylactic vaccination can build protective immunity against the parasite in individuals and reduces the incidence and transmission of the disease. Presence of residual infections in a community can boost the protective immune responses generated by the vaccination. Significant progress has been made in the last two decades to develop a vaccine for human helminth infection. Among these the prophylactic vaccine for hook worm, schistosome and lymphatic filariasis is nearing clinical trials. Completion of the genome of the parasites and advances in recombinant DNA technology and immunology has significantly helped in identifying and characterizing several potential vaccine antigens for vaccine development against helminths. This talk will cover the current advances in vaccine development against helminths with special focus on developing a vaccine for lymphatic filariasis.

 

World Parasitology 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Santi P. Sinha Babu photo
Biography:

Santi P Sinha Babu is an eminent Researcher in the field of Lymphatic filariasis. Presently he is working as a Professor at the Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati Uni­versity, Santiniketan, India. His area of specialization is the development of antifilarial drugs from natural sources and evaluation of their mode of action at molecular level. He has teaching experience of more than 24 years and research experience of more than 34 years. He has undertaken research projects from almost all funding agencies of India like CSIR, DBT, DST, UGC and Ministry of Health, Government of India. He has published more than 90 papers in reputed international journals and presented papers in several international conferences abroad. His current activity includes understanding of filarial immunobiology, development of nanoparticle-drug conjugate and targeted immunostimulation of TLR4 with plant products.

Abstract:

Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne parasitic disease, is endemic in several parts of the globe and causes morbidities, disabilities and socio-economic loss to a large population every year. Inflammatory events resulted from host-parasite interactions play key role in the pathology of LF. The study was undertaken with an objective to isolate the proinflammatory factor from microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. A~70 kDa microfilarial protein (MfP) was isolated from the lysate of W. bancrofti microfilariae through ultrafiltration followed by p-amino phenyl phosphoryl choline affinity chromatography. Inflammation of MΦ was studied by determining the expression of TLR4, its downstream signaling molecules and proinflammatory cytokines using immunoblotting and PCR. In this investigation, we have found that MfP of W. bancrofti binds to macrophage (MΦ)-TLR4 receptor. This protein triggers TLR4 signaling pathway through NF-κB activation. It was also evident from elevated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines i.e., TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. To examine the specificity of MfP for augmenting TLR4 mediated proinflammatory signals, TLR4 KO MΦ were incubated with MfP, failure of MfP to evoke proinflammatory responses through NF-κB activation suggested MfP induced mediation of TLR4 activity. Additionally, fluorescent labeled MfP demonstrated its binding to TLR4. MfP therefore appears to be a new ligand on the surface of W. bancrofti, determination of its functional attributions in host-parasite relationship may open an unknown area in our understanding.

World Parasitology 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Zhongdao Wu photo
Biography:

Zhongdao Wu is head of the Department of Parasitology and Deputy Dean at Zhonghan School of Medicine at Sun Yat-sen University China.

Abstract:

Schistosomes are parasitic worms’ flourishes in the human host despite the development of a pronounced immune response. Understanding how the immune system deals with such pathogens is still daunting a challenge. Initiating regulation of host immune response by releasing some schistosome-derived molecules is an important mechanism of immune evasion of Schistsoma japonicum. Previously, our groups have identified a 16 kDa secretory protein, Sj16, from Schistosoma japonicum. Sj16 is produced and secreted by all stages of the parasite and confirmed as an important protein in the alleviating of inflammation damage when the cercaria penetrated into the skin and was closely involved in to the immune escape of the Schistosomasis. Using recombinant Sj16 (rSj16) protein expressed from E. coli, we demonstrated that this recombinant protein has a potent strong immuno-modulation effect and significantly alleviate rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). In this study, we confirmed that rSj16 enter into the nuclear of host cells using the NLS1 and promote the production of IL-10 which mediates the inhibitory effect of rSj16 on LPS-induced BMDCS.

World Parasitology 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Helieh Saatara Oz photo
Biography:

Dr Helieh S. Oz has DVM, and MS (U. IL); PhD (U. MN) and clinical translational research certificate (U. KY Med Center). Dr Oz is an active member of American Asso­ciation of Gastroenterology (AGA) and AGA Fellow (AGAF). Dr Oz is a Microbiologist scientist with expertise in Infectious and inflammatory diseases, drug discoveries, pathogenesis, innate and mucosal Immunity, molecular biology, and micronutrient. Dr Oz has over 90 publications in the areas of chronic inflammatory disorders (e.g. pancreatitis, hepatitis, colitis), microbial and infectious diseases (e.g. Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomasis, Babesiosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia). Dr Oz has served as Lead editor for special issues including Gut Inflammatory, Infectious diseases and Nutrition 2017 (Mediators of Inflammation); Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases (Nutrients); Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Repair: Role of Microbiome, Infection, Nutrition 2016 (Gastroenterology Research Practice), and co-editor for Parasitic infections in pediatric clinical practice (J Pediatric Infectious Disease). Dr Oz is a member of different editorial board and an avid reviewer for several peer-reviewed journals

Abstract:

An estimated 1.5 billion people are predicted to be infected with Toxoplasma, an Apicomplexan organism. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important foodborne illnesses, and inflammatory syndromes, as well as congenital disorders and hospitalization. Promiscuous Toxoplasma is transmitted by contaminated food and animal products, meat, milk and dairy (cysts form), water, fruits, vegetables (mainly oocysts), or sexually acquired through semen (tachyzoites). Toxoplasmosis is a neglected disease of poverty and prominent in rural areas according Center for Diseases Control. Toxoplasma causes a complex immune-inflammatory reaction in vital organs with the surge of chemokines and cytokines. Subsequent acute phase, the organisms lodge in cyst forms predominantly in muscles and adipose tissues and central nervous system for the life awaiting reactivation due to immunosuppression. Toxoplasma infects nucleated cells with a unique tropism for central nervous system (e.g. neurons, glia) with a mind bugging, psycho-behavior altering and malicious effects. Toxoplasma can impair the limbic brain neurons responsible for instinct defensive behavior and judgment activity adjacent to limbic regions of sexual desire. In addition, organisms harvest essential nutrients including folate from neurons and prone victims to neuro-developmental, neuro-degenerative and cognitive disorders. Pregnant mom with newly acquired acute or reactivated toxoplasmosis transmits organism via placenta to her fetus. The severity of congenital toxoplasmosis depends on the gestation period, as infection in early pregnancy causes more severe consequences. Congenital toxoplasmosis complications include miscarriage, encephalitis, neurological retardation, mental illnesses, auditory and visual inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular abnormalities, and pains. Current available therapies are inefficient or have severe side effects in congenital and chronic toxoplasmosis. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapeutic modalities against toxoplasmosis as well as possible effective vaccines to eliminate the infectious agents in definitive host, cats. This presentation will discuss transmission, immunomodulation, and pathogenesis in maternal-fetal and pediatric toxoplasmosis, and the current available therapies in practice, and explore therapeutic modalities in experimental stages for promising future trials.

  • Field Parasitology | Immunoparasitology | Medical Parasitology | Medical Entomology Biochemical and molecular Parasitology
Location: Chicago, Illinois, USA
Speaker

Chair

Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram

University of Illinois, USA

Biography:

Vishal Khatri, completed his PhD and working as an research associate at Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine Rockford, University of Illinois, Rockford, Department of Microbiology & Immunology under the super vision of Dr. Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram, Professor & Head of Department.

Abstract:

The concept of hygiene hypothesis has directed us to investigate anti-inflammatory and therapeutic potential of Brugia malayi recombinant cystatin (rBmCys) in immune-mediated disorders such as, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Type-1 diabetes (T1D) in rodent models. The anti-inflammatory activity of rBmCys on mice peritoneal exudate cells was initially checked in vitro. Colitis was induced by administering Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) orally on days 3, 4 and 5. Different groups of colitis-induced mice were treated with rBmCys (10/25/50 μg/dose/i.p). Treatment with rBmCys reversed the pathology in DSS-induced colitis, these include no weight loss, absence of any occult blood in the feces and absence of pathological changes in the colon. The amelioration of the symptoms and pathology in the DSS-colitis model after rBmCys treatment was dose dependent. For T1D, streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were used and four doses of rBmCys (25μg/dose/i.p.) were given at 15 days intervals after the onset of the disease. All the treated animals were assessed for changes in the clinical parameters, humoral and cellular immune responses. Treatment with rBmCys ameliorated the overall disease severity of T1D. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased to 37% following treatment with rBmCys. Histopathological analysis showed that >44% of the total pancreatic islets were protected from inflammatory changes and cell death. This improvement in colitis and T1D correlated with a generalized shift towards Th2 type of immune response in rBmCys treated animals. The findings from this study show that rBmCys is a promising immunomodulatory molecule for reversing the symptoms of colitis and T1D.

Biography:

Nikhil Chauhan, completed his PhD and working as an research associate at Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine Rockford, University of Illinois, Rockford, Department of Microbiology & Immunology under the super vision of Dr. Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram, Professor & Head of Department.

Abstract:

Helminthes are notorious for modulating host immune responses that help them survive for several years in the hostile environment in the host and cause the disease process. Several studies were conducted in the past one decade to identify how the parasites were able to achieve this. It was demonstrated that the helminth parasites are capable of producing molecules that can suppress or deviate host immune responses targeted against them. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 (MIF-2) is one such molecule produced by filarial parasites that is believed to have significant immunomodulatory function on host macrophages and monocytes. In this study we cloned and characterized MIF-2 from Wucheraria bancrofti. Wba-mif-2 cDNA (363 bp) were amplified from λZAP cDNA library of W. bancrofti third stage infective larvae and cloned into the pRSETB expression vector. The annotation of Wba-mif-2 gene showed the presence of two exons of 183 bp and 180 bp interspersed with long intron of 3,912 bp (Accession no. BK008885). In an attempt to characterize the function of rWba-MIF-2, we used three known inhibitors of human MIF tautomerase activity. Our studies showed that the rWba-MIF-2 tautomerase activity was significantly inhibited by curcumin (58.98%), ISO-1 (50.32%) and 4-IPP (29.17%). Compared to human MIF-2, the signature C57XXC60 catalytic site for oxidoreductase activity was found to be absent in rWba-MIF-2. However, homology modeling showed that Cys58 and Cys95 are in close association (at a distance of 3.23 Aº with pKa value 9.0) and may function in the oxidoreductase activity. PCR based site directed mutagenesis in Cys58Ser and Cys95Ser of rWba-MIF-2 abrogated the tautomerase activity suggesting a vital role for these cysteine residues in the oxidoreductase activity of rWba-MIF-2. Addition of rWba-MIF-2 to LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells resulted in significant suppression of IL-6 secretion by the macrophages. These findings suggest that rWba-MIF-2 has significant immunomodulatory functions capable of downregulating macrophage mediated inflammatory responses.

Biography:

Rosana Wiscovitch-Russo is currently a Doctoral student at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras. She is currently analyzing possible environmental and pathogenic organisms of the Huecoid and Saladoid cultures through which assumption of the cultures life styles and diets are made based on current knowledge of the detected organism.

Abstract:

DNA extraction and sequencing of pre-Columbian coprolites has provided information on the fecal microbiota and parasite burden of ancient humans. Nine pre-Columbian coprolites from the Island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, were utilized to determine parasite infection in two co-existing cultures; the Huecoid and Saladoid. The cores of the coprolites were used for DNA isolation and metagenomic shotgun sequencing. We performed a descriptive analysis of identified parasite sequences. Since these cultures co-existed in Vieques, a similar parasite infection scenario was expected between cultures. Also, given the matrix enteric parasites were anticipated. Polyparasitism was apparent, which lead to suspect poor overall health of the Huecoid and Saladoid cultures. Local and remote BLAST+ search revealed sequences of important enteric parasites Ascaris spp., Enterobius spp., and Parastrongyloides spp. with a query cover >80% and percent of identity >98%. Among the detected parasite sequences, Onchocerca spp. and Spirometra spp. reads were successfully mapped producing assemblies of >500 bp with a map quality >35 and a map error rate <0.03. Interestingly, several identified parasites were unexpected as they had not been detected in previous paleoparasitological research. These include Haemonchus spp., Onchocerca spp., Parastrongyloides spp. and Spirometra spp. Preliminary analysis of direct microscopy of the Huecoid and Saladoid coprolites identified Ascaris spp. and Enterobius spp. eggs, though parasite sequences without evidence of direct microscopy does not necessarily indicate its absence. Most of the detected parasites can be transmitted by the fecal-oral route and usually cause enteritis, an affliction incompatible with the formation of coprolites. Finding coprolites clearly indicated that there were no symptoms associated with gastroenteritis. Therefore, this may be a result of co-evolution allowing host resistance to diseases brought about by enteric parasites.

Biography:

Rachel Zufferey is a Parasitologist, studying lipid metabolism in Leishmania and Trypanosoma brucei. She is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at St. John’s University, Queens, NY, USA.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by female sandflies. This disease is endemic in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, and affects at least 12 million people worldwide. Every year, at least 2 million new cases are reported and 350 million humans are at risk of contracting this disease in more than 88 countries. The treatment of leishmaniasis relies primarily on expensive, poorly effective chemotherapeutic drugs that exhibit several undesirable side effects and can be sometimes difficult to administer. In addition, the rising occurrence of leishmaniasis and appearance of drug resistant parasites make the development of more effective drugs a necessity for the prevention and treatment of leishmaniasis. The purpose of this study is to characterize enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor lipophosphoglycan in order to identify suitable targets for chemotherapy.

Methodology: Genes or enzymes of the ether lipid biosynthetic pathway were assessed, especially their involvement in lipophosphoglycan biosynthesis and in virulence.

Findings: The dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase enzyme LmDAT localizes in the peroxisomes and is specific for palmitoyl- CoA as substrate. Furthermore, LmDAT is essential for lipophosphogycan biosynthesis, growth of the parasite, survival during the stationary phase of growth, ether lipid generation and for causing disease in mice. Lastly, a null mutant of LmDAT was found to mediate some protection in mice against an ulterior challenge of wild-type parasites.

Conclusion & Significance: LmDAT may be a good target for chemotherapeutic intervention and the null mutant lacking LmDAT may serve as a potential live vaccine candidate.

Biography:

Greanious Alfred Mavondo is a Chemical Pathologist and Lecturer at the National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe. His passion in human pathophysiology and management has led him into the investigation of the malaria pathophysiology in animal models using phytochemicals as alternative treatment for the disease. He has shown that Asiatic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, is able to ameliorate severe malaria anemia, malaria associated inflammation, malaria oxidative stress, abrogate malaria induced glucose homeostasis derangements with preservation of renal function and electrolyte handling.

Abstract:

Background & Aim: Higher prevalence of malaria related renal failure, current malaria drugs nephrotoxicity and drug resistance to malaria calls for continued research in anti-parasitic as well as anti-disease pharmaceuticals. Asiatic acid has antioxidant, pro-oxidant and diuretic properties. Here we report influence of Asiatic acid-pectin hydrogel matrix patch application in P. berghei-infected Sprague Dawley rats on renal function and electrolyte handling.

Materials & Methods: Asiatic acid (5 mg/kg)-pectin patch was applied on the dorsal neck region of the rat on day 7 post infection and monitored for parasitaemia, physicochemical changes. Urine, blood and plasma were collected for measuring various biochemical parameters.

Results: Asiatic acid-pectin patch application had significant influence on food and water intake as well as weight changes, urine electrolytes, glomerular filtration rate, inflammatory and antioxidant markers together with hormonal changes of aldosterone and vasopressin.

Conclusion: Application of the once-off Asiatic acid (5 mg/kg)-pectin patch influence renal function and renal electrolyte handling while ameliorating, biochemical and hormonal derangements induced by malaria.

Biography:

Xi Sun was graduated from Sun Yat-sen University and obtained his PhD degree in 2011. Presently she is an Associate Professor in Department of Parasitology, Sun Yat-sen University, China. Her work focuses on the infection and immunology.

Abstract:

Schistosomes are parasitic worms’ flourishes in the human host despite the development of a pronounced immune response. Understanding how the immune system deals with such pathogens is still daunting a challenge. Initiating regulation of host immune response by releasing some schistosome-derived molecules is an important mechanism of immune evasion of Schistsoma japonicum. Previously, our groups have identified a 16 kDa secretory protein, Sj16, from Schistosoma japonicum. Sj16 is produced and secreted by all stages of the parasite and confirmed as an important protein in the alleviating of inflammation damage when the cercaria penetrated into the skin and was closely involved in to the immune escape of the Schistosomasis. Using recombinant Sj16 (rSj16) protein expressed from E. coli, we demonstrated that this recombinant protein has a potent strong immuno-modulation effect and significantly alleviate rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). In this study, we confirmed that rSj16 enter into the nuclear of host cells using the NLS1 and promote the production of IL-10 which mediates the inhibitory effect of rSj16 on LPS-induced BMDCS.